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Diatician Makuku: Tells of what your body needs

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Growing up, Diatician, Keitumetse Makuku of Bonatla Wellness Solutions at AO Clinic was a fussy eater, she admits, she still is.
She recalls her late grandmother carrying a stick at every meal time. Today, she has has made it her life’s mission to educate people on good nutrition.

What made you choose this career path?
Growing up I would line up my mom’s deodorants, colognes and body lotions as my students. I knew that I wanted to teach people and educate them on how to improve their lives. Hence I chose Dietetics, which entails educating people on good nutrition and improves their lives.

What was your diet like growing up?
I was a fussy eater, my late grandmother would always be carrying a stick everytime I had to eat. I am still a fussy eater and don’t eat a lot of foods.

If you could persuade people to change three things about their diet, what would they be?
Eat foods that you enjoy so that you can be consistent with your healthy eating. For example, we know healthy eating entails eating mostly wholegrains, fruits and vegetables, low fat products, low fat dairy products and lean meats like chicken. From the wholegrains group make sure you eat that which you enjoy so that you can be consistent. There are individuals who love eating korong whereas others love eating mosutlhane or both, in this case I should not feel pressured to eat items I don’t like, including brown rice. Some people believe that healthy eating is when you eat fancy foods that entails shopping for expensive vegetables they can’t afford and only eat for a short period of time. Eventually, such people will tell you that they don’t enjoy the food but are just eating it because it’s considered healthy.
Keep it simple, our forefathers were healthy on their traditional foods. Lifestyle modification is a process and it begins with you as the individual. If you want to lose weight do it because you are ready and know and believe that it is the right thing to do, than doing it to impress your peers.

Are there any books, magazines, newsletters, podcasts or websites you would recommend for those who want to become better educated about diet and nutrition?
If you want to know more about good nutrition first and foremost there are professionals in the field, Nutritionists and Dietitians in all the different government hospitals and some are in private practices. They are the right people to give nutrition advise and guide. However, if you want to read about any nutrition facts you need to search peer reviewed articles which have different research findings about nutrition issues. Look for the latest journals as Nutrition is dynamic.

What are some of the most common nutritional mistakes you observe in your clients?
The most common nutritional mistakes I observe made by individuals are that they believe that starchy foods contribute to weight gain. They also believe that starving oneself or skipping meals is helpful in weight loss. They also restrict the intake of important nutrients that can be beneficial to health.

What is a typical day’s breakfast, lunch, and dinner for you?
Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. One cup of oats with a fruit is my favourite, then take in water afterwards. Lunch – one cup of samp and beans with one cup cooked morogo and a piece of lean beef with a bit of gravy and a fruit. Dinner for me could be baked potatoes with one cup of green salad and chicken. I enjoy simple healthy dishes.

There is a lot of hype around intermittent fasting (IF) lately. What are your thoughts about fasting as a dietary technique?
Bear in mind that the amount of food that one eats is dependent on a lot of factors such as physical activity, weight, and basal metabolic rate. Fasting varies according to different religions. Some omit all the food items and use water only, while others omit other food items and remain with a few food items. Therefore, what I can say is that provided you do not have any medical condition you can go through any kind of fasting for religious purposes, however, when you want to lose weight you cannot use fasting because for the body to lose weight it requires to be satisfied first, then that is when it can start shedding off the fat. I do not despute that fasting generally makes one lose weight, but when you want to maintain that weight loss it becomes difficult because your body will start to experience cravings which you would want to curb by overeating.

We are constantly told how ‘bad ’meat is and encouraged to have meatless meals. What’s your take on vegetarianism and veganism?
Meat is not bad, too much high fat meat is high in calories and saturated fat which contributes to weight gain and increases the chances of heart diseases. However, if you eat lean cuts of meat, chicken and fish you also benefit from the nutrients such as iron from red meat, protein, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids from fish. There are however, individuals who opt for vegetarianism for personal, religious reasons. They also benefit from plant proteins which are low in cholesterol, also contain protein. As long as one substitutes the right nutrients then it is acceptable.

What is detoxification and how do you feel about the need for it?
Detoxification as the name implies means getting rid of toxins in the body. What are toxins? High fat foods, high sugary foods, high refined foods, high salty foods. All these become toxins but when you eat healthy i.e wholegrains, low fat products, low fat dairy products, lean cuts of meat, more fruits and vegetables you do not have to detoxify. Eat healthy and avoid having to use the word detoxification.

What kinds of tools and methods do you use to help your clients achieve their goals?
As a Dietitian we are trained to educate, advise and counsel individuals on the right way of eating. We do not impose it to them but we make suggestions. We also give you the risks to unhealthy eating, and allow you to think about what healthy eating can benefit you and your family. We work together with individuals to reach a desired healthy goal.

How important is exercise and how much of it is effective?
Physical activity and not exercise is very important as it promotes good health. Relieves from stress, gives more energy, helps in shedding off fat. However, I always advise that people do what they enjoy most and not exercise because their friend is doing it. You can jog, brisk walk, swim, or anything that you would enjoy so that you can be consistent.

Any words of advice or suggestions for someone considering entering your field?
If you want to study Nutrition and Dietetics you need to have a passion for it.

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Kutlwelo Mariri ready to diffuse special needs children time-bomb

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Without sufficient funding and a more coherent approach, the future of children with special needs is bleak according to Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) and Audiologist and founder of Ambrose Academy, Kutlwelo Mariri.

She was one of the eighteen young leaders from Botswana who flew out to the US recently to participate in the Mandela Washington Fellowship, the flagship programme of the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI). Here she discusses her experience and what she has learnt through the programme.

Why did you apply for Mandela Washington Fellowship (MWF) Program 2018?
As a person you need professional and development growth so this was opportunity for me to go and appreciate how far I have contributed with the field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in my country, to learn about the business acumen of making services sustainable and to see what’s next. So since I heard how rich the Business and Entrepreneur track was I believed I should apply and I really got more than what I ever bargained for. It was an experience I wouldn’t trade for anything.

What does it takes to be Mandela Washington Fellow?
It takes a person who has the willingness to change the status quo as well as to care about improving the lives of people. In a nutshell you should be a visionary. I think for last year there was about 37 000 applications and total selection been 700 in Africa as a whole. We were only 18 from Botswana and I was privileged to be part of the Botswana MWF 2018.

What did it mean for you to be selected?
You know Rachel, God’s timing is always the best and we never understand it. I have been meaning to apply but our organisation was not ready for me to go away for 7 weeks so this time I applied and was selected this was perfect timing for me as well as our organisation. For example from the professional side of things we needed to re -evaluate our journey and reposition ourselves to continue being of value to the patients and to special needs children as well as introducing PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE. One of our major concerns is that many children are delayed in speech and language, in fine and gross motor skills simply because of lack of stimulation if we do not attend to this, the number of special needs kids will continue to rise. So as Ambrose Academy we need to address this issue like yesterday otherwise we are sitting on a time bomb.

Where were you placed?
I was placed in a very intensive programme for 7 weeks in University of Austin, Texas under the programme of leadership headed by Professor John Dogget. From the very first day, he told us his intent was not to make us into himself, rather to make sure we graduate from the programme as people who will go and make a difference in our countries and make Africa what it needs to be. He has deep care for Africa and I feel like I owe it to him to make sure whatever I have learnt I better myself and my people. The course covered main areas of leadership, business, critical thinking, self care and this year’s Mandela Theme of Servant Leadership.

So how do the following areas apply in your profession;
Leadership-As you know the profession of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology is relatively a new profession in our country we still have a long way to go. However what came from the MWF 2018 was that do it in phases, appreciate where you are, where you need to go and keep pivoting until you get at your destiny. Be willing to get advice and be eager to learn so that you keep up with latest trends in your field and NEVER compromising QUALITY.

Also care about humanity and the people you serve as much as acknowledging that some will NEVER be happy with your services no matter how much you try but make peace with that. This really resonated with me very well I always see possibilities with my adult patients and special needs children however one thing that used to hurt me is seeing a parent with buying power not affording their child that opportunity and always complaining about this and that no matter how much I tried.

Business Acumen-Please allow me to generalise in Botswana , there is perception that Health should be FREE even in private sector while its OKAY to pay it in South Africa for example and that has robbed us from having research institutes because research is expensive. In most cases I struggled so much with my patients wanting discount of everything which then makes it impossible to pay monthly expenditure like the rentals and salaries of the personnel. So I heard in all the 7 weeks that passion alone won’t pay bills every day. Prof Doggett made sure we get that. He summarised it like government, private sector even Non Government Organaisations need funds to run. So it doesn’t matter what for, whether for rehabilitation to improve, we need funds to make it first class like in other countries. So sustainability comes in here; if one can’t pay for running cost then they simply face closure.

Self care-Everyone who is in business will attest that as a founder or pioneer of any project you work non-stop with absolutely no time to smell the coffee. This really puts one at risk for cardio vascular diseases and burn out as all they do is work, work and work. However I have learnt to appreciate that one needs to take care of oneself before taking care of other people. All I have been doing is work, work and work. I used to love baking and for the past 7 years I never did it so at least now I have started to learn again, hehehe maybe this festive season I will bake for my family …..
Servant Leadership-I believe as Africans we have the custom for servant leadership it comes natural to us to care about each other even those in the community however we have diluted this if not lost it.

That is why we have concept such as Kgomo ya Mafisa or every child is yours …… Every child is yours really hit me home when my team and I saw the need to establish a trust that can raise awareness about special needs children or teach the public about rehabilitation it was a way of giving back…..there is so much stigma but the question what do we do about it? Do we advocate for these kids or we turn a blind eye we concluded that we needed to advocate so that whether in government, private sector or NGOs our people can be helped. But our many challenges are that there is no volunteerism anymore, we only care once it hits home and by that time there is nothing much you can do because now when you advocate you fear people will say Oh you are only doing it now because you are going through it even though I personally believe it’s never too late to start.

You touched on the general expectation by most people for free medical/specialist services and you raised valid points. But, what of special needs children coming from underprivileged backgrounds? Are we saying they are doomed because their parents can’t afford specialist services at Ambrose Academy for example?

Oh my God Rachel, this is one area that hurts me the most, it’s just that my hands are tied. You know we are very far from assisting these children. I always say if we the literate ones, with buying power and with so much exposure; we don’t see the value of investing in our children ‘s rehabilitation services or prevention is better than cure programmes what is the possibility of having these services extended to those in deep rural areas? Because once we get it then we will extend it to them and fundraise for them? Until then I don’t know what will happen, we need brave people to stand up and help this situation especially policy makers.

Why can’t you at Ambrose Academy for example extend these services to these children especially that I always hear parents particularly those with autistic children talk about the great improvements they notice in the children once they start at school?

Well we have always asked to be subsidised and the answer we get is that it’s not in the government policy. However NORMAL developing children can be sponsored in private institutions and that’s OKAY BUT FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS WE would rather give them P300 MONTHLY. I mean if we don’t do anything now can we ever sponsor them in universities while they are not rehabilitated? No ways. I have asked government since it used to sponsor these children in South Africa, why can’t the sponsorship be extended to services like ours? All the international visitors are saying why government is not assisting your efforts? Who is government Rachel? It’s the people working in government. What they do is to find 100 reasons why they can’t sponsor children in our school even though they can see with their own eyes how we have improved the lives of these children.

The only thing to do I guess is to continue advocating for all these children until Policy Makers hear us, and realise that only talking about how we want to improve special needs children lives it will NEVER happen unless we make it possible for them through enabling policies and implementation not just talk.

Share some of outstanding moments of your time in the US
One of the aha!moments I had was during an assignment I had to write my obituary and read it to the audience. It was so intense and very emotional to a point where Prof John kept saying remember guys you are not dead but we couldn’t help crying because it included how you have empowered your family and how your people will remember you by the sacrifice you made for your country. Did you assist your patients and the children in Ambrose Academy simply because it’s the right thing to do or you sabotaged people you were serving? One thing I really wish for my country is for us to create opportunities for others, I normally say if you go to most organisations for assistance the norm in Botswana is that they will tell you 100 things why it can’t work instead of 100 ways to make it work. However in USA they are willing to solve problems for the benefit of others. Imagine if we had that attitude in Botswana.

The whole experience was eye opening and I will like to encourage all young people to apply for it so that they can go and learn from those who are ahead of us. We need to see the possibilities so that our dream for our country becomes even more brighter and we can indeed tell our African stories instead of others telling them for us.

Is there anything we can learn from the healthcare system of the US?
Health is expensive! I think this is the first step we need to appreciate in Botswana, running away from this breaks my heart. Investing in experts, resources and research is costly; do we have health research units? That’s the only way we can improve our health system. We do not need to re-invent the wheel it’s already invented by those who are ahead of us. All we need to do is work towards that. Nowadays when people are hospitalised I hear them saying I know I am going to die, hospitals should save lives not become places of NO HOPE. We need to change that.

What does the future hold for you personally and Ambrose Academy?

The future is exciting MWF2018 has increased my network where I can learn from others and continue to improve myself. I was kind of losing hope with all the efforts that I have tried but now I have been ignited. As Ambrose Academy we will continue to raise the bar and ensure we remain relevant to bring value to Ambrose Academy children, even all other children in this country. We will soldier on and leave no stone unturned until our voice is heard…… GIVE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS AN OPPORTUNITY THEY ALSO DESERVE TO HAVE A BRIGHT FUTURE THEY ARE NOT DOOMED …..

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Dr Moeti: First woman WHO Regional Director for Africa

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Give us some background on you and WHO.
I joined WHO’s Africa regional office in 1999 and served as deputy regional director, assistant regional director, director of non-communicable diseases, WHO representative for Malawi, and co-ordinator of the Inter-Country Support Team for South and East African countries. Before joining the WHO, I worked with UNAids as Team Leader of the Africa and Middle East Desk in Geneva (1997-1999). I also served as Unicef’s regional health advisor for East and Southern Africa; and with Botswana’s Ministry of Health as a clinician and public health specialist.

You have been vocal about the shrinking donor funding. How can African countries fill in the gaps and sustain progress in healthcare?
It was inevitable that we would get here. Countries are developing, their economies are growing. This means that as countries graduate into middle-income states, they need to smartly invest more of their resources in health. If donor funding is reducing, African countries need to be working on ways to improve their own revenue. While they are trying to seal the gap, they need to work better on areas that need emphasis. It is not as if the money is not there, it may not be getting into the public purse. Therefore, we need to talk about flight of capital and address cases of some international donors not paying taxes to the degree that they should.
At the same time, instead of lamenting and worrying about the flight of donor money, countries need to invest much more effort in getting their own revenue from areas like taxation. I should say, Botswana has done well over the years, government expenditure on health has increased substantially. It is one of the few African countries to have reached the Abuja Target, with 15% of total government expenditure allocated to healthcare.

With a continent that is heavily populated with young people, what is the involvement of youth in an agenda like Universal Health Coverage?
We need to deal with the awkwardness of having old and young people in the room to talk about health or at least engage young people where they are and bring their views and voice into decision-making. At the WHO, we are learning to do this. Our adolescent health programme has not been among the best funded or our strongest and we are deciding that it deserves this added emphasis because it deals with the biggest demographic in the region.
We are therefore recruiting young people to change how we are working and asking our adolescent health programme to work with all the other programmes, so that those working on HIV/Aids, sexual and reproductive health, non-communicable diseases, and health systems development take on board the needs of young people.

Talk about WHO’s renewed approach to dealing with health emergencies and outbreaks.
Lessons from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa revealed critical gaps in WHO’s emergency preparedness. We are therefore adjusting our programmes to have a smart technical focus in line with the region’s priorities, basing interventions on evidence and lessons learned from experience. We have now reformed our Health Emergencies Programme and are part of a global WHO approach of one emergency programme, one workforce, one budget and one line of accountability.
That means, for example, that my director, who is the team leader in Africa, does not need to get permission from me for everything he has to do. One of the big changes we have put in place is that this director can work directly with the executive director in Geneva and the WHO country representative to make decisions.
This is the approach we used to address recent disease outbreaks in Africa such as the yellow fever outbreak in Angola. We are also working with other partners in a structured way and co-ordinating the work that needs to be done between the three levels to provide better support.

How prepared are African countries to deal with emerging issues like antimicrobial resistance and disease outbreaks?
I genuinely think African countries (maybe not all of them) are better prepared on the whole than they were pre-Ebola outbreak.
But I also think we are not quite there yet. Health systems are still very weak. If you look at an objective tool like the International Health Regulations, there are very many gaps in African countries.
With data collected from about 12 of the 47 countries, we have more evidence-based information about the existing gaps and what needs to be done.
Countries have also begun putting together co-ordination mechanisms on the so called emergency operation centres, where you can deal with one of the key problems when something arises:
“How do I have an effective co-ordination nod which directs the actions from investigations, confirmation, response, surveillance and monitoring to see that an outbreak is being brought under control?”
That is one more step to being better prepared. We have also seen improvement in the laboratory capacity to quickly diagnose some of the organisms causing outbreaks. At the end of the day, what needs to happen is that if an outbreak is starting somewhere and the infected person goes to a clinic anywhere in a country, you need to have in the health worker diagnostic capacity to pick up that something unusual is happening, report that and trigger investigations that will conclude what is going on.

Research has not been explored especially when you focus on Africa’s role. How can we see more research by ‘Africa for Africa’?
Africa has paradoxically been quite involved in global health research but much of this has been invested in by outside entities and the agenda of this research has been determined by the funders of the research.
We need our own domestic investment in research which will enable the countries to define their own research priorities and, most importantly, to work with the outcomes of those researches to inform policy and service delivery.
I have seen the private sector becoming more and more engaged in playing its role in healthcare.
And we must admit that there are a lot of opportunities to harness the resources, skills and experiences of private sector. However, I think it needs to be done within a framework of clear alignment with national priorities and for us, because this is the Sustainable Development Goals era, clear alignment with the idea of driving towards equity, better quality services access but also emphasising affordability.

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