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SNAKE BITES AMONG TOP KILLERS

Rachel Raditsebe

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Snakebite venom has been placed on the list of neglected tropical diseases that should be given priority. Being in the World Health Organisation’s category A means that snakebites will now get more support, including funding, to assist those afflicted by the potentially fatal bites.

Intensive care specialist at Princess Marina Hospital, Dr Alexei Milan, welcomed the move, saying that snakebite victims will now get more attention and that there will now be more resources to fight snakebites, which kill up to 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa every year.

It is estimated that 2.7million bites happen annually, a fifth of these in Sub- Saharan Africa. Apart from this, a quarter of the world’s 400,000 bite-related fatalities occur in the region. These figures are likely conservative as a few snakebite victims make it to statistic-reporting hospitals.

In fact, figures by an NGO – Health Action International (HAI) show that 70% of the cases go unreported. Snakebites can cause paralysis that may prevent breathing; bleeding disorders that can lead to a fatal hemorrhage; irreversible kidney failure and tissue damage that can cause permanent disability and which may result in limb amputation for those who survive the ordeal.

Dr Milan said the biggest challenge is getting the correct anti-venom in a given facility and the risk of stock-outs. Children often suffer more severe effects than adults, due to their smaller body mass.
According to local snake handler, Aaron Tsatsi, antivenoms work depending on the type of snake that bit you and where it is found. The science of producing antivenom, according to experts, involves extracting venom from snakes and injecting it into animals, such as horses.

The injected animals’ immune systems produce antibodies that neutralise the venom. These can be extracted and stored for later use on human victims who are bitten by that particular snake species.

Botswana has about 72 species of snakes and while about 80 percent of them are not venomous, a number of them are deadly including like the Puff adder, Black mamba, the poisonous Mozambique Spitting Cobra and Boomslang among others,.

Tsatsi says health workers should be aware of these in order to offer effective treatment. “To be able to help, health workers need to know what snake bit a person depending on the symptoms that they show.

“We are not telling them to go into forests and start searching for snakes,” he says,” but they need to know that for some bites you do not need any treatment because it was a dry bite or they are just not poisonous”.

Tsatsi advises people to try as much as possible to avoid bites first by changing their attitude of attacking and killing snakes when they spot them. He explains that most of the snakes, even the most poisonous, are peaceful and will not strike unless provoked.

He recommends that people move away once they spot a snake. If it spits venom in one’s eyes, he adds, they should be rinsed immediately with water. He says once bitten, all tight items on one’s body should be removed and the wounded area left alone.

Then, he adds, the patient should also be made to lie on the ground with the side that has not been bitten to limit movement of the affected area. He warns against lying on the back or use of unsaf traditional treatments. To protect yourself against bites ensure that all holes in your house are closed, cut grass around the house and watchyour steps when in the bush.

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Sun Health

Women living longer than men

Rachel Raditsebe

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Life expectancy has been increasing over the past two decades across the world with several nations in Sub sub-Saharan Africa rebounding from high death rate due to HIV/AIDS.

In Botswana women have a longer life expectancy than men, living to an average of 68.4 years compared to 63.6 for men. Between 2005 and 2016, death rates from HIV/AIDS decreased by 42% and malaria by 43% while Pre- birth complications and maternal disorders decreased by 30% and 29% respectively. However, this progress is said to be threatened by increasing number of people suffering health challenges related to obesity, high blood sugar, alcohol and drug abuse. This is according to a health research conducted at the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).

The study, which examined the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), injuries and risk factors, the years that one lives in good health and those that one lives with an injury or illness, analyzed 300 illnesses and injuries in 195 countries between 1990 and 2016. The results were published on Thursday in the journal, The Lancet.

For most countries, changes in healthy life expectancy for males and females between 1990 and 2016 were positive, but in dozens of others, including Botswana, Belize and Syria, healthy life expectancy in 2016 was not significantly higher than in 1990. Healthy life expectancy takes into account not just death rates but the impact of non-fatal conditions and considers years lived with disability and years lost due to premature mortality.

According to the study, in 2016 Botswana’s disease burden was found to arise from unsafe sex, high fasting plasma glucose, high systolic blood pressure, high body-mass index and alcohol use.
HIV, respiratory infections, diarrhea and tuberculosis were the diseases most prevalent among men. For women, lower respiratory infections (such as pneumonia and bronchitis), and congenital anomalies were the most prevalent illnesses. Congenital illnesses are conditions that one is born with, which can affect one’s development and general well-being.

Maternal and child Deaths
The study has also found that from 1980 to 2016, giving birth has gotten less safe for mothers in Botswana. The ratio of maternal deaths grew from 74 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 118 in 2016. Globally, the ratio of maternal deaths fell 30% over the same time period, from 282 to 196 per 100,000 live births. One of the co-researchers of the study, Dr Charles Shey Wiysonge, said it was encouraging that Batswana are living longer. However, he lamented that the high number of maternal deaths, “have overshadowed significant gains against HIV/AIDS”.

Dr Wiysonge is a GBD collaborator from South Africa who serves as a Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. Dr. Nicholas Kassebaum, Assistant Professor, IHME said, “in many nations, improvements in maternal health are accelerating, but in others, women face daunting challenges, including the absence of trained professionals to assist with pregnancy and childbirth, and deal with life-threatening emergencies. As a result, reproductive health care must be a higher priority, including the expansion and improvement of reproductive health and family planning services and, for complications in childbirth, more advanced obstetric care.”

The study says that in 2016,1550 children under the age of 5 died, a ratio of 28.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. This ratio has been falling by 2.6 % each year since 1990. On the global level, 5.8 million children under age 5 died, representing a 52% decline in the number of under-5 deaths since 1990. In 2010 for example, the highest risk factor to good health among children under the age of five was being underweight, while among those aged between 15 and 49, the highest risk factor was alcohol abuse.

The researchers also examined the role that socio-demographic status – a combination of income, age, fertility rates and average years of schooling – plays in determining health. They noted that socio-demographic status is much less responsible for the variations seen for ailments, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

“Factors including income and education have an important impact on health but don’t tell the full story. Looking at healthy life expectancy and health loss at the country level can help guide policies to ensure that people everywhere can have long and healthy lives no matter where they live.” said IHME Director Christopher Murray.

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Know Your Specialist

Surviving endometriosis with natural remedies

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What is your professional background?
I am a medical officer at Princess Marina Hospital and have been working there for almost two years. I’m currently in the Obstetricians & Gynaecologist department working as a General Practitioner. It’s one of my areas of interest plus my boss is awesome and LOVES to teach.

What got you interested in food?
I went to a med school in China, and around the area I studied in, they were very passionate about their food intake, as it is with all Chinese but particularly in my city, Changsha. So we were blessed as students to be exposed to different remedies all the time. I got very ill whilst there, and they treated me with amazing methods. The only other people I know that use mother- nature as their healer are my grandparents in Lesotho. So I guess that’s where my motivation comes from, plus my mum practices alternative medicine all the time.

What is one of the wackiest nutrition myths you have heard of?
That swallowing gum may stay in your stomach for seven years. My mum loved saying that to me hence I am not a big fan of chewing gum.

What are some of the changes and trends you have observed in the food world over the last 20 years?
I am not a certified nutritionist, I’m just a person interested in using what earth has given us. It saved my life. The dependency of pills and a lot of pharmaceutical products scare me. The world has woken up to see that we don’t live as long as we used to. Take the Asians, they outlive us and are very active in their old age and their diet is a big factor to that.

You have been diagnosed with stage 3 endometriosis. Take us through that experience.
I was shocked but I was relieved at the same time, that at least I was not going crazy about my pain and the heavy menses. Plus, I had had a myomectomy, the surgical removal of uterine leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, done last year and that was horrible experience; so being diagnosed with Endometriosis was hard but a relief in the same breath.

How do nutrition and endo relate? Can diet improve the symptoms of endometriosis?
Honestly, regarding to this, there needs to be more information for the public. Since I’m not a nutritionist I cannot answer but can advise around it. There are so many theories of what causes endometriosis. So you need to understand your body first to derive a conclusion. In my case I first developed fibroids and did the necessary tests to try and find the cause. Then worked backwards from there.

In addition, research has shown that women with endometriosis often have higher levels of estrogen, and that estrogen can encourage tissue growth. Can an anti-inflammatory type of diet eliminate excess oestrogen from the body?
When attempting to relieve endometriosis symptoms naturally, begin by eliminating foods that lead to inflammation. This includes dairy, processed foods, refined sugars, caffeine and carbohydrates.
Eliminate these foods from your diet for at least three weeks, paying close attention to your body changing throughout the process.
Alcohol, soy and other high-estrogen foods should also be eliminated from your diet because of their estrogenic effects. Which means more super anti-inflammatory foods.

It is important to track symptoms so that potential triggers can be identified. Hence why journaling your progress is so important. Honestly those are some of the things I do which have been of big help. If you want more follow my page Dr. Tumie violet Mphusu. So we can discuss more.

Is there something specific that has made the biggest change in your health? A treatment plan you have formulated for yourself, maybe?
I am a big fan of natural remedies. When I get sick I always go to Mother Nature before seeking pills. So with my case, I realized that when explored the Daniel fast, follow my page for more details, my menstruation became normal. The first month, I remember thinking I was just lucky, but when I reintroduced certain foods in my life, the old horrific cycle returned.
The flow, my pain, my fatigue and other related symptoms. Diet is the key to how our lives will pan out in the future. You are what you eat.

Your last word?
Please remember there is no cure for endometriosis, and surgical or medical treatments remain the most effective methods of managing the condition. However, making dietary changes is a complementary approach that may help some women manage their symptoms. Keep in mind that just as symptoms of the disease vary from person to person, treatments that work best for one woman may not be right for another.  Take your time to experiment with different remedies to find the approach that’s right for you.

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