One reader recently enquired through email over whether glue sniffing can cause mental health problems or not. Glue is classified under a group of drugs known as inhalants and it is an open fact that inhalant use is a cause for concern. Inhalant use account for 1 % of substance use in the world.
We have been accustomed to the fact that glue is usually used by “street kids” but is often used by many of the youth. Several studies have shown a strong relationship between juvenile delinquency and inhalant use and in most cases a facilitating ground for use of other illicit substances. In developing countries like Botswana it is mostly common in lower socioeconomic group. Glue when used as a drug, the method of administration is often sniffing.
The intoxicating effect from glue sniffing is often short lived for a few minutes. This then forces the user to repeatedly inhale the glue to get the “high” effect. The effect of glue sniffing can be hallucinations, confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech. Glue sniffers may initially attain a euphoric state or less anxiety which is an effect they desire to either cause trouble or commit crime. Following many years of chronic glue use, there can be central nervous system or brain damage.
Some users can end up having tremors, muscle weakness or even death as a result of use. Dealing with glue sniffing, takes the most universal approach like other substance use disorders. However, we must cognisant of the fact that inhalants like glue are readily available, less expensive and legal which make it easy for youth to use. The use of glue is easily concealed which makes it difficult for parents and teachers at school to detect its use.
Treatment of the problem is often done looking at individual client’s symptoms. Individual counselling and group therapy may be other alternatives in addressing the situation.
INTERNATIONAL NURSES DAY: REFLECTING ON THE MENTAL HEALTH CHALLENGES OF NURSES
Today’s reflection will be on the Nurses’’ day that was celebrated worldwide on the 12th of May. The day is celebrated in remembrance of the birth Florence Nightingale who is the pioneer of modern day professional nursing. The theme for this year is “Nurses: A voice to lead-Health for All.”
Nurses are the backbone of the healthcare system as in every health care facility they are there to provide care. They are the single largest group of professionals in the clinical field.
The crux of the discussion is that professional nurses experience burnout and workplace stress because of the nature of the demands of the nursing job. These emanate from working long hours, emotional exhaustion from dealing with vulnerable and ailing clientele, experience of traumatic events, fulfilment of high professional and public expectations and low reward outcomes for their efforts.
The nurses’ already volatile ordeal is further compounded by incidences of nurses being assaulted, emotionally abused, physically abused, sexually assaulted and cyber bullied by the same individuals that they seek to render care for.
The above highlighted challenges can be emotionally draining to the nurses and even facilitate development of mental health problems if they are not attended to promptly. This has been affirmed by various studies.
A review paper done by Vasconcelos and others in 2016 highlighted that the risk of exposure to HIV and poor relationships with administrators as other associated factors that facilitated development of mental disorders.
The review found the following as affecting most of our nurses; post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress reaction, generalised anxiety disorder, depression and over indulgence in substances.
Nursing managers, the patients as well members of the community need to play a pivotal role in ensuring protective factors towards nurses’ mental health are availed.
The good thing is that this can be ensured by helping nurse build resilience, having debriefing sessions for nurses working in trauma care and having measures like retreats to name but a few. Nurses need to be healthy for them to be custodians for “health for all”.
WHAT WE EAT CAN AFFECT OUR MENTAL HEALTH
I had a chat with friend over the weekend and he felt that dieticians placed at psychiatric hospitals are misplaced. The basis of today discussion will be herein a response to this.
Nutrition does play a critical role in mental health hence the need for dieticians to be involved in this field as it is the case now. As noted by the research team led by Joseph Firth, “nutritional deficiencies resulting from insufficient intake of nutrients critical to human health are a risk factor for psychiatric and mental disorders.”
Our brains needs food for them to function optimally. Concentration, memory, analysing to name but a few can all be attained by a “well fed brain.” If the brain is deprived of nutrients, it can incur oxidative stress which results in brain cell damage. Brain cells are irreplaceable and their damage facilitates the development of some mental disorders Experience of mental health problems may also be associated with poorer diet and physical health.
Poor nutrition has been implicated in the onset of schizophrenia by various research findings. Studies on schizophrenia patients indicated that the nutrients Zinc and Selenium were found to be compromised whilst in others there was insufficient Vitamin D deficiency.
Other research conducted has determined that the following supplements: zinc, magnesium, omega 3, and vitamins B and D3 are essential in elevating people’s mood, relieving anxiety and depression. Insufficient Omega-3 fatty acids has additionally been linked to low mood, poor concentration, cognitive decline and poor comprehension.
It is clear from the discussion that good nutrition is critical for our mental health and that dieticians are relevant in mental health. An affordable balanced diet which contains the essential nutrients is necessary to be taken to ensure that mental health is uplifted. Nutrition alone cannot ensure our mental but it has a significant adjunctive role. As posited by local author Lindo Morolong, “what you feed your body shapes your health.”
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